Official AHS English Packet
- AHS English Essentials 2
- How to make a work cited page
- How to do in-text/parenthetical citation
- What is plagiarism and what are the consequences?
- Essay rubrics
- How-to guides for writing essays
- Tips for giving a good speech
- & the famous “Punctuation Cheat Sheet”!
Basic Flow for Works Cited Entries
Notes: Periods go after 1, 2, & 3. Also use a period after the last element. Commas after elements 4, 5, 6, and possibly 7 & 8, depending on what the final element used is. It is possible you will not find all of the elements; if they cannot be found, they are skipped.
1. How do I know when I need to cite?
- You must cite if ideas or words came from anywhere other than your own mind; this means you must cite not only when you are taking words directly out of a source or paraphrasing ideas (“putting it in your own words”).
- If you don’t cite, you are PLAGIARIZING.
- If you take ideas out of a book or website, like SparkNotes, even if you put everything your own words, if you don’t cite the source, YOU ARE PLAGIARIZING. Stealing ideas is just as punishable as stealing exact wording.
- Citation Web Quest: an activity for students to learn about MLA 8
2. What does “citing my sources” mean?
- Whether your work is written or in a speech, you must include your sources in a works cited page.
- In your writing, if you are using a fact, an idea, or a direct quote from any source other than your own mind, you must use a parenthetical (in-text) citation after the information.
- In your speaking, you must cite your source(s) aloud by telling the audience where the information was found. You can usually do this by telling them these three things: the author, the article/book/web page title, and the name of the source the information was published by, like The New York Times.
3. What goes in parenthetical (or “in-text”) citations?
- Usually, give the author and page or line number(s)…
- Put the author’s last name, then space, then enter the page number(s)
- Ex: (Hawthorne 54-5) or (Anderson 20).
- What if there is no author?
- Use the name of the webpage or article. Format this as you would a web page or an article name–with quotes.
- Ex: (“Underwater Caves” 211) or (“University of Iowa Admissions”)
- What if the entries have no author and the web page names are the same?
- Choose the first unique element you see in the works cited entry for the source (perhaps the name of the website).
- If you use the name of the website, format as you would a website name–in italics.
- Ex: (Bigfuture) or (History Channel)
- What are the basic rules for formatting whatever I put in the parenthetical?
- Format whatever you put in there the same way it is formatted in the works cited page.
- Ex: (Miller 12) or (“University of Iowa Admissions”) or (Bigfuture)
- What if the source doesn’t have pages?
- If there is no page, leave that part out. Do NOT put n. pag.
- If you want, you can count up the paragraphs and put the paragraph number, but it isn’t required: (Raymes par. 7)
4. How do I cite in a speech?
- Even in a speech, you must tell the audience where the information came from.
- If there is an author, you can say something like, “According to Mary Smith, in her article “Underwater Basket Weaving” on WashingtonPost.com, blah blah blah.”
- If there is no author stated, you can say, “According to an article called “McCarthy and the Red Scare” on BBC.com, blah blah blah.”
- You can also mix it up by thinking of other ways to state your source. For example, “Mary Smith, in her article “Underwater Basket Weaving,” stated, ‘blah de blah.'”
- When you’re writing a speech or making a Power Point presentation, don’t forget to also make a works cited page if you used any ideas or took any direct quotes from a source!
5. How do I make a Works Cited page?
- Cite Anything in MLA 8 (basic packet)
- Cite a Website in MLA 8 (quick handout)
- Cite a Book (quick handout)
- Sample below…
6. How do I “set up” or “lead into” my quotes?
- There are many ways to set up or lead into a quote…
- You can make the quote flow within your sentence, like this: In his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Frederick Douglass argues that “Slavery proved as injurious [to slave holders] as it did to me” (31).
- You can use a phrase. If you do this, and the set up is not a complete sentence, place a comma before the quote. It would look like this: Douglass argues that Auld’s prohibition against literacy for him was a profound experience, saying, “It was a new and special revelation” (29).
- You can also use a complete sentence to set up a quote, but then you must use a colon before the quote. It will look like this: The effects of Auld’s prohibition against teaching Douglass to read were quite profound for Douglass: “It was a new and special revelation” (29).
- Want to read more about integrating quotes? Click Here!
7. How do I do both short and long quotations?
8. How do I cite from the Bible?
- For the works cited page, type this:
- The Bible. The Version, Publisher, Year.
- Example: The Bible. The New American Bible, Our Sunday Visitor, 2005.
- For the parenthetical citations, type this:
- (Bible Version, Abbreviated Book Title. Chapter-Verse).
- Example: Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).
- Click HERE for a list of proper abbreviations for the Books of the Bible!
9. How do I cite from a poem?
- How to cite a poem in a works cited page
- How to do in-text/parenthetical citation for poems:
- Short quotations (1-3 lines of verse) from poetry require that you mark breaks in the verse with spaces and a slash ( / ) at the end of each line of verse.
- Example: Cullen concludes in the poem, “Of all the things that happened there / That’s all I remember” (11-12).
- Long quotations (4+ lines of verse) from poetry need a block quote (hit enter and then tab twice to indent each line of the poem). Make a new line for each line of the poem that you cite. The period goes before the parenthetical now.
10. How do I cite from a play?
- Citing a play in a works cited page (like The Crucible) (Shows how to make works cited pages for all different types of plays.)
- Citing verse plays (like Shakespeare) (Shows how to make works cited pages and do parenthetical citation for plays written in “verse,” which includes all of Shakespeare’s plays.)
How to do in-text citation for a prose play (like The Crucible):
If people are talking back and forth (dialogue), you do a block quote, capitalize speaker’s names, don’t put in quotation marks, leave the period at the end, and then give the page number, like this–(34). See picture below:
If it is just a short quote from one person, or if you are quoting from the stage directions, you just cite using the normal rules for short quotations. Set up the quote, use quotation marks, copy the quote out exactly as it is, use a parenthetical, and move end periods to the other side of that parenthetical. Inside the parenthetical, put the page number.
Example: Frustrated, Walter says, “all you can say is eat them eggs and go to work” (34).
How to do in-text citation for a verse play (like Shakespeare):
If it’s dialogue (people talking to each other), you do a block quote, capitalize speaker’s names, don’t put in quotation marks, leave the period at the end, and then give the act, scene, and line numbers, like this–(2.1.115-117). See the image below:
If it is just a short quote from one person, or if you are quoting from the stage directions, you just cite using normal rules for short quotations. Set up the quote, use quotation marks, copy the quote out exactly as it is, use a parenthetical, and move end periods to the other side of that parenthetical. Inside the parenthetical, put the act, scene, and line number(s).
Example: Desdemona exclaims, “Alas, she has no speech!” (2.1.115).